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Lysine-Derived Protein-Bound Heyns Compounds in Bakery Products
- Treibmann, Stephanie, Hellwig, Anne, Hellwig, Michael, Henle, Thomas
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.48 pp. 10562-10570
- Maillard reaction products, bananas, cookies, enzymatic hydrolysis, food processing, fructose, honey, metabolic diseases, models, monitoring, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, syrups
- Fructose and dicarbonyl compounds resulting from fructose in heated foods have been linked to pathophysiological pathways of several metabolic disorders. Up to now, very little has been known about the Maillard reaction of fructose in food. Heyns rearrangement compounds (HRCs), the first stable intermediates of the Maillard reaction between amino components and fructose, have not yet been quantitated as protein-bound products in food. Therefore, the HRCs glucosyllysine and mannosyllysine were synthesized and characterized by NMR. Protein-bound HRCs in cookies containing various sugars and in commercial bakery products were quantitated after enzymatic hydrolysis by RP-HPLC–ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Protein-bound HRCs were quantitated for the first time in model cookies and in commercial bakery products containing honey, banana, and invert sugar syrup. Concentrations of HRCs from 19 to 287 mg/kg were found, which were similar to or exceeded the content of other frequently analyzed Maillard reaction products, such as N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (10–76 mg/kg), N-ε-carboxyethyllysine (2.5–53 mg/kg), and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (10–218 mg/kg) in the analyzed cookies. These results show that substantial amounts of HRCs form during food processing. Analysis of protein-bound HRCs in cookies is therefore useful to evaluate the Maillard reaction of fructose.