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Rare earth elements in street dust and associated health risk in a municipal industrial base of central China
- Sun, Guangyi, Li, Zhonggen, Liu, Ting, Chen, Ji, Wu, Tingting, Feng, Xinbin
- Environmental geochemistry and health 2017 v.39 no.6 pp. 1469-1486
- adults, average daily intake, children, dust, health hazards, neoplasms, pollution, rare earth elements, risk, sediments, soil, China, Yangtze River
- The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg⁻¹, with an average of 115.9 mg kg⁻¹, which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern indicated light REE (LREE) enrichment, a relatively steep LREE trend, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, a flat HREE trend, a Eu-negative anomaly and a Ce-positive anomaly. Foremost heavy local soil and to less degree anthropogenic pollution are the main sources of REE present in street dust. Health risk associated with the exposure of REE in street dust was assessed based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect and lifetime average daily dose. The obtained cancer and non-cancer risk values prompt for no augmented health hazard. However, children had greater health risks than that of adults.