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Controlled‐release urea decreased ammonia volatilization and increased nitrogen use efficiency of cotton

Author:
Tian, Xiaofei, Geng, Jibiao, Guo, Yanle, Li, Chengliang, Zhang, Min, Chen, Jianqiu
Source:
Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 2017 v.180 no.6 pp. 667-675
ISSN:
1436-8730
Subject:
Gossypium hirsutum, ammonia, cotton, fertilizer rates, flowering, leaves, lint yield, nitrogen, nitrogen content, nutrient use efficiency, photosynthesis, plant growth, polymer-coated urea, soil, sulfur-coated urea, urea, volatilization
Abstract:
Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizer input leads to higher N loss via ammonia (NH₃) volatilization. Controlled‐release urea (CRU) was expected to reduce emission losses of N. An incubation and a plant growth experiment with Gossypium hirsutum L. were conducted with urea and CRU (a fertilizer mixture of polymer‐coating sulfur‐coated urea and polymer‐coated urea with N ratios of 5 : 5) under six levels of N fertilization rates, which were 0% (0 mg N kg⁻¹ soil), 50% (110 mg N kg⁻¹ soil), 75% (165 mg N kg⁻¹ soil), 100% (220 mg N kg⁻¹ soil), 125% (275 mg N kg⁻¹ soil), and 150% (330 mg N kg⁻¹ soil) of the recommended N fertilizer rate. For each type of N fertilizer, the NH₃ volatilization, cotton yield, and N uptake increased with the rate of N application, while N use efficiency reached a threshold and decreased when N application rates of urea and CRU exceeded 238.7 and 209.3 mg N kg⁻¹ soil, respectively. Ammonia volatilization was reduced by 65–105% with CRU in comparison to urea treatments. The N release characteristic of CRU corresponded well to the N requirements of cotton growth. Soil inorganic N contents, leaf SPAD values, and net photosynthetic rates were increased by CRU application, particularly from the full bloom stage to the initial boll‐opening stage. As a result, CRU treatments achieved significantly higher lint yield by 7–30%, and the N use efficiency of CRU treatments was increased by 25–124% relative to that of urea treatments. These results suggest that the application of CRU could be widely used for cotton production with higher N use efficiency and lower NH₃ volatilization.
Agid:
5867991