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Transcriptomic analysis of wound xylem formation in Pinus canariensis

Chano, V., Collada, C., Soto, A.
BMC plant biology 2017 v.17 no.1 pp. 234
Pinus canariensis, biotic stress, branches, cambium, cell walls, conifers, genes, microarray technology, resin canals, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, tracheids, transcription (genetics), transcription factors, transcriptomics, trees, wood, woody plants
BACKGROUND: Woody plants, especially trees, usually must face several injuries caused by different agents during their lives. Healing of injuries in stem and branches, affecting the vascular cambium and xylem can take several years. In conifers, healing takes place mainly from the remaining vascular cambium in the margin of the wound. The woundwood formed in conifers during healing usually presents malformed and disordered tracheids as well as abundant traumatic resin ducts. These characteristics affect its functionality as water conductor and its technological properties. RESULTS: In this work we analyze for the first time the transcriptomic basis of the formation of traumatic wood in conifers, and reveal some differences with normal early- and late-wood. Microarray analysis of the differentiating traumatic wood, confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, has revealed alterations in the transcription profile of up to 1408 genes during the first period of healing. We have grouped these genes in twelve clusters, according to their transcription profiles, and have distinguished accordingly two main phases during this first healing. CONCLUSIONS: Wounding induces a complete rearrangement of the transcriptional program in the cambial zone close to the injuries. At the first instance, radial growth is stopped, and a complete set of defensive genes, mostly related to biotic stress, are induced. Later on, cambial activity is restored in the lateral borders of the wound, even at a high rate. During this second stage certain genes related to early-wood formation, including genes involved in cell wall formation and transcription factors, are significantly overexpressed, while certain late-wood related genes are repressed. Additionally, significant alterations in the transcription profile of abundant non annotated genes are reported.