Jump to Main Content
High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry compared with ion chromatography for quantitative determination of dissolved fluoride in river water samples
- Ley, Philip, Sturm, Manfred, Ternes, Thomas A., Meermann, Björn
- Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2017 v.409 no.30 pp. 6949-6958
- absorption, adverse effects, calcium, chlorides, detection limit, drinking water, filtration, fluorides, humans, ion exchange chromatography, landfills, magnesium, mineral water, plants (botany), quantitative analysis, river water, seepage, sodium, spectroscopy, storage conditions, surface water, Germany
- In addition to beneficial health effects, fluoride can also have adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants if the daily intake is strongly elevated. One main source of fluoride uptake is water, and thus several ordinances exist in Germany that declare permissible concentrations of fluoride in, for example, drinking water, mineral water, and landfill seepage water. Controlling the fluoride concentrations in aqueous matrices necessitate valid and fast analytical methods. In this work an alternative method for the determination of fluoride in surface waters based on high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied. Fluoride detection was made possible by the formation of a diatomic molecule, GaF, and detection of characteristic molecular absorption. On HR-CS-GFMAS parameter optimization, the method was adapted to surface water sample analysis. The influence of potential main matrix constituents such as Na⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, and Cl⁻ as well as surface water sampling/storage conditions on the molecular absorption signal of GaF was investigated. Method validation demonstrated a low limit of detection (8.1 μg L⁻¹) and a low limit of quantification (26.9 μg L⁻¹), both sufficient for direct river water sample analysis after 0.45-μm filtration. The optimized HR-CS-GFMAS method was applied for the analysis of real water samples from the rivers Rhine and Moselle. For method validation, samples were also analyzed by an ion chromatography (IC) method. IC and HR-CS-GFMAS results both agreed well. In comparison with IC, HR-CS-GFMAS has higher sample throughput, a lower limit of detection and a lower limit of quantification, and higher selectivity, and is a very suitable method for the analysis of dissolved fluoride in river water. Graphical abstract High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied for the quantitative analysis of dissolved fluoride in river water samples from the Rhine and the Moselle. Fluoride detection was made possible by the addition of Ga for GaF formation and analysis of characteristic molecular absorption at 211.248 nm. Good agreement between HR-CS-GFMAS and ion chromatography (IC) results was obtained. In comparison with IC, HR-CS-GFMAS had a faster sample throughput and lower limit of detection and limit of quantification.