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The average concentration function of dissolved copper in Hun River, Liaoning province, Northeastern China
- Zhang, Kan, Su, Fang-Li, Liu, Xian-Min, Song, Zhi, Feng, Xue
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.35 pp. 27225-27234
- aquatic organisms, control methods, copper, dry season, humans, issues and policy, mining, pollution, pollution control, rivers, watersheds, China
- Water samples were collected from Hun River to research the change in the concentration of dissolved copper and its distribution as well as accumulation during the dry season in 2013. The mean concentrations of dissolved copper in Hun River were 0.1057–0.1533 mg/l during the dry season. The results indicated that the most severe dissolved copper pollution were associated with the mining area, industrial area, and living area along the Hun River. The results also indicated that controlling the sources of copper pollution effectively reduced the concentration of dissolved copper in Hun River. The concentration function about time and spatial coordinate, average concentration function about time coordinate, average concentration function about spatial coordinate, and bounded mean oscillation space were used to evaluate the extent of copper pollution in Hun River. The error function, quartiles, and curve fitting tool were performed to determine the stations with high concentration of dissolved copper in Hun River. We furthermore obtained the upper and lower bounds of the error between two kinds of bounded mean oscillation spaces to explore the migration of copper pollution in Hun River. The results of the average concentration function and bounded mean oscillation space revealed that the long-term control measures of copper pollution and short-term control measures of copper pollution, the control of copper pollution in large watershed, and the control of copper pollution in small watershed in Hun River should be combined with each other. The strict policy and pollution control strategy should be implemented to ensure that the water of the Hun River meets the natural environment standard for the growth of aquatic life and human.