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Asthma disease as cause of admission to hospitals due to exposure to ambient oxidants in Mashhad, Iran

Ghaffari, Hamid Reza, Aval, Hamideh Ebrahimi, Alahabadi, Ahmad, Mokammel, Adel, Khamirchi, Ramzanali, Yousefzadeh, Samira, Ahmadi, Ehsan, Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl, Estaji, Mehdi, Ghanbarnejad, Amin, Gholizadeh, Abdolmajid, Taghavi, Mahmoud, Miri, Mohammad
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.35 pp. 27402-27408
acute exposure, air pollutants, air pollution, antioxidants, asthma, children, cities, computer software, hospitals, models, monitoring, nitrogen dioxide, oxidants, ozone, sulfur dioxide, Iran
Nowadays, asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases, worldwide. Many reports have emphasized the correlation between the short-term exposure to the ambient air pollutants and acute respiratory diseases, especially among children with asthmatic symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the exposure to three atmospheric antioxidants (NO₂, SO₂, and O₃) and hospital admission due to asthmatic disease (HAAD) in the city of Mashhad, Iran. The concentrations of atmospheric antioxidants were obtained from the real-time monitoring stations located in the city. The collected data were employed for developing predictive models in the AirQ software. In order to investigate the association between short-term exposure to air pollutants and HAAD, the study participants were categorized into two age groups: less than 15 and from 15 to 64 years old. The results indicated that in people less than 15 years increase in NO₂ (attributable proportion (AP) = 3.775%, 95% CI 0.897–6.883%), SO₂ (AP = 3.649%, 95% CI 1.295–5.937%), and O₃ (AP = 0.554%,95% CI 0.00–3.321) results in increase in HAAD. While for those aged between 15 and 64 years, the AP was 4.192% (95% CI 0.450–7.662%) for NO₂; 0.0% (95% CI 0.00–1.687%) for SO₂; and 0.236% (95% CI 0.00–1.216%) for O₃. The number of asthmatic cases who were less than 15 years admitted to the hospitals during the study period was higher than that of those within the age groups between 15 and 64 years as a consequence of exposure to NO₂ (101 vs. 75), SO₂ (98 vs. 0), and O₃ (15 vs. 3), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the AirQ model has not been applied before to estimate the effect of atmospheric antioxidant exposure on hospital admission because of asthma disease. Eventually, this model is proposed to be applicable for other cities around the world.