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A method to generate the surface cell layer of the 3D virtual shoot apex from apical initials

Kucypera, Krzysztof, Lipowczan, Marcin, Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna, Nakielski, Jerzy
Plant methods 2017 v.13 no.1 pp. 110
clones, computers, meristems, models
BACKGROUND: The development of cell pattern in the surface cell layer of the shoot apex can be investigated in vivo by use of a time-lapse confocal images, showing naked meristem in 3D in successive times. However, how this layer is originated from apical initials and develops as a result of growth and divisions of their descendants, remains unknown. This is an open area for computer modelling. A method to generate the surface cell layer is presented on the example of the 3D paraboloidal shoot apical dome. In the used model the layer originates from three apical initials that meet at the dome summit and develops through growth and cell divisions under the isotropic surface growth, defined by the growth tensor. The cells, which are described by polyhedrons, divide anticlinally with the smallest division plane that passes depending on the used mode through the cell center, or the point found randomly near this center. The formation of the surface cell pattern is described with the attention being paid to activity of the apical initials and fates of their descendants. RESULTS: The computer generated surface layer that included about 350 cells required about 1200 divisions of the apical initials and their derivatives. The derivatives were arranged into three more or less equal clonal sectors composed of cellular clones at different age. Each apical initial renewed itself 7–8 times to produce the sector. In the shape and location and the cellular clones the following divisions of the initial were manifested. The application of the random factor resulted in more realistic cell pattern in comparison to the pure mode. The cell divisions were analyzed statistically on the top view. When all of the division walls were considered, their angular distribution was uniform, whereas in the distribution that was limited to apical initials only, some preferences related to their arrangement at the dome summit were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The realistic surface cell pattern was obtained. The present method is a useful tool to generate surface cell layer, study activity of initial cells and their derivatives, and how cell expansion and division are coordinated during growth. We expect its further application to clarify the question of a number and permanence or impermanence of initial cells, and possible relationship between their shape and oriented divisions, both on the ground of the growth tensor approach.