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Toxoplasma gondii-positive human sera recognise intracellular tachyzoites and bradyzoites with diverse patterns of immunoreactivity
- Roiko, Marijo S., LaFavers, Kaice, Leland, Diane, Arrizabalaga, Gustavo
- International journal for parasitology 2018 v.48 no.3-4 pp. 225-232
- Toxoplasma gondii, antibodies, antibody detection, antigens, bradyzoites, fluorescent antibody technique, humans, immunoglobulin G, parasites, serodiagnosis, tachyzoites
- Antibody detection assays have long been the first line test to confirm infection with the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. However, challenges exist with serological diagnosis, especially distinguishing between acute, latent and reactivation disease states. The sensitivity and specificity of serological tests might be improved by testing for antibodies against parasite antigens other than those typically found on the parasite surface during the acute stage. To this end, we analysed the reactivity profile of human sera, identified as positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG in traditional assays, by indirect immunofluorescence reactivity to acute stage intracellular tachyzoites and in vitro-induced latent stage bradyzoites. The majority of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG positive sera recognised both intracellularly replicating tachyzoites and in vitro-induced bradyzoites with varying patterns of immune-reactivity. Furthermore, anti-bradyzoite antibodies were not detected in sera that were IgM-positive/IgG-negative. These results demonstrate that anti-Toxoplasma gondii-positive sera may contain antibodies to a variety of antigens in addition to those traditionally used in serological tests, and suggest the need for further investigations into the utility of anti-bradyzoite-specific antibodies to aid in diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection.