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Evaluating Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Loads at the Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi

Jayakody, Priyantha, Parajuli, Prem B., Brooks, John P.
Human and ecological risk assessment 2014 v.20 no.4 pp. 1023-1041
water pollution, coliform bacteria, bacterial contamination, water quality, poultry manure, best management practices, methodology, watersheds, seasonal variation, Soil and Water Assessment Tool model, septic systems, surface water, pollution load, Mississippi
Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists and public health agencies because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations in the Pelahatchie watershed (527 km ²) in Mississippi, USA. Livestock manure, poultry litter, and effluent from failing septic systems were identified as major sources of FCB in the Pelahatchie watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)/microbial sub-model was applied, and model-simulated FCB concentrations were compared with the monthly measured FCB concentrations (years 2001–2008) at the outlet of the watershed. New methodologies were introduced to incorporate bacteria loads into the bacteria model. Results showed coefficients of determination (R ²) of 0.71 to 0.75, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) of 0.67 to 0.75 during the bacteria model's calibration and validation periods, respectively. Seasonal analysis of the model-simulated results determined the highest bacteria concentrations in January, whereas the lowest concentrations were simulated in June. Furthermore, the FCB contributions to the watershed outlet from the sources of contamination varied with time of year. This study will help watershed managers to implement best management practices for improvement of water quality.