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Transcriptome-based identification and characterization of genes commonly responding to five different insecticides in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

Gao, Yue, Kim, Kyungmun, Kwon, Deok Ho, Jeong, In Hong, Clark, J. Marshall, Lee, Si Hyeock
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2018 v.144 pp. 1-9
Plutella xylostella, chemical defenses, cypermethrin, cytochrome P-450, dinotefuran, dipping, energy, gene ontology, genes, indoxacarb, instars, larvae, leaves, lethal concentration 50, mechanism of action, mitochondria, poisoning, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, spinosad, transcriptomics
When the 3rd instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were pretreated with sublethal doses (LC10) and then subsequently exposed to lethal doses (LC50) of chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad via leaf dipping, their tolerance to insecticides was significantly enhanced. To identify genes that commonly respond to the treatment of different insecticides and are responsible for the tolerance enhancement, transcriptomic profiles of larvae treated with sublethal doses of the five insecticides were compared with that of untreated control. A total of 117,181 transcripts with a mean length of 662bp were generated by de novo assembly, of which 35,329 transcripts were annotated. Among them, 125, 143, 182, 215 and 149 transcripts were determined to be up-regulated whereas 67, 45, 60, 60 and 38 genes were down-regulated following treatments with chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed little differences in their GO profiles between treatments with different insecticides except for spinosad. Finally, the DEGs commonly responding to all insecticides were selected for further characterization, and some of their over-transcription levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR. The most notable examples of commonly responding over-transcribed genes were two cytochrome P450 genes (Cyp301a1 and Cyp9e2) and nine cuticular protein genes. In contrast, several genes composing the mitochondrial energy generation system were significantly down-regulated in all treated larvae. Considering the distinct structure and mode of action of the five insecticides tested, the differentially expressed genes identified in this study appear to be involved in general chemical defense at the initial stage of intoxication. Their possible roles in the tolerance/resistance development were discussed.