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Characterization of alginate/chitosan-based nanoparticles and mathematical modeling of their SpBMP-9 release inducing neuronal differentiation of human SH-SY5Y cells

Lauzon, Marc-Antoine, Marcos, Bernard, Faucheux, Nathalie
Carbohydrate polymers 2018 v.181 pp. 801-811
Alzheimer disease, alginates, blood-brain barrier, brain, chitosan, encapsulation, growth factors, humans, mathematical models, nanoparticles, neurites, tau-protein kinase, viability
The incidence of brain degenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) will increase as the world population is ageing. While current AD treatments have only a transient effect, there are many evidences indicating that some growth factors, such as BMP-9, may be used to treat AD. However, growth factors cannot readily access the brain because of their size and the presence of the blood brain barrier. We have therefore developed a small peptide derived from BMP-9, SpBMP-9, which can promote the differentiation of cholinergic neurons and inactivate GSK3beta, a Tau kinase. Here, we investigated the potential of a nanoparticle-based delivery system of SpBMP-9, made of alginate and chitosan (Alg/Chit NPs), as a new therapeutic strategy against AD. The Alg/Chit NPs size distribution revealed NPs with an average diameter of ∼240nm. The encapsulation efficiency of SpBMP-9 was ∼70% of the initial peptide mass loading. Release kinetics of SpBMP-9 were performed in physiological conditions and modelled with a mechanistic framework that took into account the size distribution of Alg/Chit NPs. The release of SpBMP-9 revealed to be mostly diffusive, but there were interactions between the peptide and the alginate chains. The Alg/Chit NPs could also increase the viability of SH-SY5Y cells in comparison to the control. Finally, the SpBMP-9 released from Alg/Chit NPs promoted the SH-SY5Y differentiation into mature neurons as demonstrated by a higher neurite outgrowth and an increased expression of the neuronal markers NSE and VAchT. In conclusion, the nano-scale SpBMP-9 delivery system made of Alg/Chit may be a promising therapeutic strategy against AD.