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Exposure to deltamethrin induces oxidative stress and decreases of energy reserve in tissues of the Neotropical fruit-eating bat Artibeus lituratus

Oliveira, Jerusa Maria, Losano, Nicole Fontes, Condessa, Suellen Silva, de Freitas, Renata Maria Pereira, Cardoso, Silvia Almeida, Freitas, Mariella Bontempo, de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2018 v.148 pp. 684-692
Artibeus lituratus, absorption, acute exposure, alanine transaminase, animals, aspartate transaminase, carbohydrate metabolism, catalase, deltamethrin, energy, farmers, flight, foraging, glutathione, glutathione transferase, glycogen, hydrogen peroxide, hyperglycemia, lipids, liver, malondialdehyde, muscles, nitric oxide, nontarget organisms, oxidative stress, reproduction, superoxide dismutase, tissues, toxicity
Deltamethrin (DTM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide highly used by farmers and home users. This pesticide has lipophilic properties that facilitate a high absorption and can cause toxicity in non-target organisms. During foraging, the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus are exposed to pesticides. However, the knowledge of the toxicity of pesticides on the physiology of bats is relatively scarce. This study aimed to check the toxicity of short-term exposure to low concentration of DTM on fruit-eating bat A. lituratus. After seven days of exposure to two doses of DTM (0.02 and 0.04mg/kg of papaya), the fruit bats showed an increase in the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and hyperglycemia. The liver and pectoral muscle presented oxidative stress. In the liver, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased as well as the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) but in a lesser extent. Yet, total lipids were increased while hepatic glycogen content is reduced. The pectoral muscle showed NO, SOD, CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl increased protein levels in both concentrations of DTM. All these results show that low doses of DTM can cause hepatic and muscular toxicity and induce changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological changes caused by exposure to DTM in bats may have direct consequences in flight capacity, reproduction, and metabolism of these animals.