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Prevalence and mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli isolates recovered from dogs suffering from otitis in Greece

Vingopoulou, Elpida I., Delis, Georgios A., Batzias, Georgios C., Kaltsogianni, Flora, Koutinas, Alexandros, Kristo, Ioulia, Pournaras, Spyros, Saridomichelakis, Manolis N., Siarkou, Victoria I.
Veterinary microbiology 2018 v.213 pp. 102-107
Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic resistance, dogs, enrofloxacin, genes, marbofloxacin, otitis, transporters, Greece
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the implicated mechanisms of resistance against selected veterinary fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin) among 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=75) and Escherichia coli (n=26) isolates collected from dogs suffering from otitis. Resistance ranged from 32.0% to 48.0% with differences not being considered statistically significant among the three agents or between the two bacterial species. However, individual MICs of pradofloxacin, the latest veterinary fluoroquinolone, were significantly lower than those of enrofloxacin, the oldest one, indicating an increased in vitro potency of the former antimicrobial. Pradofloxacin MIC90 was, additionally, the lowest (8μg/ml), in E. coli, or among the lowest (8μg/ml), in P. aeruginosa isolates. Resistance was in most cases associated with topoisomerase substitutions, with patterns GyrA:V73G in P. aeruginosa and GyrA:S83L+D87N/ParC:S58I+A86V in E. coli being reported for the first time in small animal isolates. Only 6.7% and 15.4% of P. aeruginosa and E. coli otitis isolates, respectively, carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, which, moreover, contributed minimally to resistance. Efflux pump activity was additionally detected in resistant E. coli isolates, even those lacking topoisomerase substitutions or PMQR genes. The emergence of resistance in the canine otitis isolates seemed to be associated with previous, prolonged systemic fluoroquinolone administration. In any case, antimicrobial susceptibility testing should guide the selection of systemic FQs for the treatment of canine otitis.