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Experimental investigation on cleaner process of enhanced fat-oil extraction from alkaline leather fleshing waste
- Devaraj, Kubendran, Aathika, Salma, Mani, Yuvarai, Thanarasu, Amudha, Periyasamy, Karthik, Periyaraman, Premkumar, Velayutham, Karthikeyan, Subramanian, Sivanesan
- Journal of cleaner production 2018 v.175 pp. 1-7
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, acid hydrolysis, biofuels, energy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, industrial applications, leather, leather industry, lipid content, lipids, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oils, scanning electron microscopy, solid wastes, solvents, sulfuric acid
- The lipid content in leather fleshing waste is very high and hence, an innovative method for the complete extraction of lipid for biofuel generation was carried out. Acid/base assisted fat extraction method was developed for industrial application without the use of inorganic solvents. The lipid yield of about 25.4% was achieved with 98% of extraction efficiency when the extraction was carried out with 4% of H2SO4 at 120 °C for 1.5 h. Acid hydrolysis assisted Soxhlet method extraction yielded of about 26% with 100% extraction efficiency in 1.5 h at 80 °C with reduced solvent consumption and time. The acid hydrolysis method is also industrially viable to process a huge quantity of fat rich solid waste materials. Also, the energy consumption is comparatively low when compared to the traditional solvent extraction method. The hydrolyzed leather fleshing and fat oil is characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA, GC-MS and H1 NMR spectroscopy.