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How bacteria control the CRISPR-Cas arsenal
- Leon, Lina M, Mendoza, Senén D, Bondy-Denomy, Joseph
- Current opinion in microbiology 2018 v.42 pp. 87-95
- bacteria, bacteriophages, enzyme activation, enzyme activity, genetic engineering, hosts, immune system, immunity, interspersed repetitive sequences, nucleases, parasitism, predation, toxicity, transcription (genetics)
- CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems that protect their hosts from predation by bacteriophages (phages) and parasitism by other mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Given the potent nuclease activity of CRISPR effectors, these enzymes must be carefully regulated to minimize toxicity and maximize anti-phage immunity. While attention has been given to the transcriptional regulation of these systems (reviewed in ), less consideration has been given to the crucial post-translational processes that govern enzyme activation and inactivation. Here, we review recent findings that describe how Cas nucleases are controlled in diverse systems to provide a robust anti-viral response while limiting auto-immunity. We also draw comparisons to a distinct bacterial immune system, restriction-modification.