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Assessing in Vitro Acaricidal Effect and Joint Action of a Binary Mixture Between Essential Oil Compounds (Thymol, Phellandrene, Eucalyptol, Cinnamaldehyde, Myrcene, Carvacrol) Over Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae)
- Brasesco, Constanza, Gende, Liesel, Negri, Pedro, Szawarski, Nicolás, Iglesias, Azucena, Eguaras, Martín, Ruffinengo, Sergio, Maggi, Matías
- Journal of apicultural science 2017 v.61 no.2 pp. 203-215
- Varroa destructor, acaricides, adults, apiculture, bees, bioassays, carvacrol, cineole, death, drug residues, ectoparasites, essential oils, in vitro studies, lethal concentration 50, mites, myrcene, parasitoses, thymol, toxicity
- Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000) causes the most important parasitosis of beekeeping in the world. For this reason, prevention is needed to avoid colony death. The most typical treatments involve synthetic acaricides. However, the use of these acaricides results in the emergence of resistant populations of mites to these products and in the appearances of drug residues in products of the hives. Compounds of essential oils have emerged as an alternative to traditional acaricides; however the toxicity produced by these mixtures is currently poorly explored. The aim of this work was to assess, by means of in vitro tests with adult bees, how acaricidal action and toxic interactions in a binary mixture of essential oil compounds (Thymol, Phellandrene, Eucalyptol, Cinnamaldehyde, Myrcene, and Carvacrol) affect V. destructor. Calculations of LC50 ’s of the individual compounds on A. mellifera and V. destructor made clear that the toxic effect of each compound is different for both species. Thymol and Phellandrene turned out to be lethal for mites at lower concentrations than for bees. The binary mixture of these two substances presented a different toxicity than one produced by each pure compound, as it was highly selective for mites in bioassays at 24 hours through complete exposure to both A. mellifera and V. destructor. These results make such formulations optimal substances to be considered as alternative controls for the parasitosis.