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Variability in biological behaviour, pathogenicity, protectotype and induction of virus neutralizing antibodies by different vaccination programmes to infectious bronchitis virus genotype Q1 strains from Chile

de Wit, J. J., Dijkman, R., Guerrero, P., Calvo, J., Gonzalez, A., Hidalgo, H.
Avian pathology 2017 v.46 no.6 pp. 666-675
Infectious bronchitis virus, antigens, cell culture, cross immunity, egg production, eggs, financial economics, genes, genotype, genotyping, kidneys, laying hens, nephritis, nestlings, neutralization, neutralizing antibodies, pathogenicity, poultry industry, respiratory system, serotypes, vaccination, vaccines, viruses, Chile, Massachusetts
In the period from July 2008 to 2010, a disease episode resulting in serious economic losses in the major production area of the Chilean poultry industry was reported. These losses were associated with respiratory problems, increase of condemnations, drops in egg production and nephritis in breeders, laying hens and broilers due to infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Twenty-five IBV isolates were genotyped and four strains were selected for further testing by pathotyping and protectotyping. Twenty-four IBV isolates were of the Q1 genotype. The experiments also included comparing the ability of six vaccination programmes to induce virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in layers against four selected Chilean strains. Despite the high genetic homology in the S1 gene between the four strains, the heterogeneity in biological behaviour of these different Q1 strains was substantial. These differences were seen in embryonated eggs, in cell culture, in pathogenicity and in level of cross-protection by IBV Massachusetts (Mass) vaccination. This variability underlines the importance of testing more than one strain per serotype or genotype to determine the characteristics of a certain serotype of genotype. The combination of Mass and 793B vaccine provided a high level of protection to the respiratory tract and the kidney for each strain tested in the young birds. The combination of broad live priming using Mass and 793B vaccines and boosting with multiple inactivated IBV antigens induced the highest level of VNA against Q1 strains, which might be indicative for higher levels of protection against Q1 challenge in laying birds.