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Pediococcus acidolactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from a rainbow trout ecosystem have probiotic and ABF1 adsorbing/degrading abilities in vitro Part A Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Martinez, Maria Pia, Gonzalez Pereyra, Maria Laura, Pena, Gabriela Alejandra, Poloni, Valeria, Fernandez Juri, Guillermina, Cavaglieri, Lilia Reneé
Food additives & contaminants 2017 v.34 no.12 pp. 2118-2130
Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, adsorption, aflatoxicosis, aflatoxin B1, antibiotics, antimicrobial properties, aquaculture systems, bile, bioavailability, biological control, catalase, ecosystems, feed additives, fish, fish culture, hydrogen peroxide, intestines, lactic acid bacteria, mortality, organic acids and salts, pH, pathogens, probiotics, proteins, rearing, schools of fish, sodium hydroxide
Probiotics are being used in biological control of bacterial pathogens, as an alternative to antibiotics, to improve health and production parameters in fish farming. Fish farming production is severely affected by aflatoxins (AFs), which are a significant problem in aquaculture systems. Aflatoxins exert substantial impact on production, causing disease with high mortality and a gradual decline of reared fish stock quality. Some aspects of aflatoxicosis in fish, particularly its effects on the gastrointestinal tract, have not been well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate probiotic properties of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains isolated from rainbow trout intestine and feed. Moreover, AFB ₁-binding and/or degrading abilities were also evaluated to assess their use in the formulation of feed additives. Growth at pH 2, the ability to co-aggregate with bacterial pathogens, inhibition of bacterial pathogens, and determination of the inhibitory mechanism were tested. Aflatoxin B ₁ (AFB ₁) adsorption and degradation ability were also tested. All strains were able to maintain viable (10 ⁷ cells ml –¹) at pH 2. Pediococcus acidilactici RC001 and RC008 showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, inhibiting all the pathogens tested. The strains produced antimicrobial compounds of different nature, being affected by different treatments (catalase, NaOH and heating), which indicated that they could be H ₂O ₂, organic acids or proteins. All LAB strains tested showed the ability to coaggregate pathogenic bacteria, showing inhibition percentages above 40%. Pediococcus acidilactici RC003 was the one with the highest adsorption capacity and all LAB strains were able to degrade AFB ₁ with percentages higher than 15%, showing significant differences with respect to the control. The ability of some of the LAB strains isolated in the present work to compete with pathogens, together with stability against bile and gastric pH, reduction of bioavailability and degradation of AFB ₁, may indicate the potential of LAB for use in rainbow trout culture.