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Effects of stocking density, ration and temperature on growth, survival and metamorphosis of auricularia larvae of the California sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus
- Ren, Yichao, Liu, Wenshan, Pearce, Christopher M
- Aquaculture research 2018 v.49 no.1 pp. 517-525
- Holothuroidea, larvae, metamorphosis, microalgae, rearing, specific growth rate, stocking rate, temperature, California
- The combined effects of stocking density (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 inds/ml) and dietary microalgal ration (20,000 and 40,000 cells/ml) and the sole effect of temperature (10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 22°C) on the specific growth rate (SGR), per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis of auricularia larvae of the California sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, were evaluated in two separate experiments. The SGR was not significantly affected by stocking densities in the range of 0.2 to 4 inds/ml, but was significantly reduced at 8 inds/ml. The SGR of larvae fed 20,000 cells/ml was significantly reduced in comparison to those fed 40,000 cells/ml. Larvae had significantly higher per cent survival and per cent metamorphosis when reared at densities of 0.2 and 0.5 inds/ml compared with those reared at 2–8 inds/ml. Microalgal ration level did not significantly impact survival or metamorphosis. Larvae reared at 16 and 18°C had significantly higher SGRs and per cent metamorphosis than those held at all other temperatures, while per cent survival was highest at 16°C. Based on these results, we recommend rearing auricularia larvae of P. californicus at a stocking density at or below 0.5 inds/ml, a dietary ration of 40,000 cells/ml, and a temperature of 16°C.