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Morphological Characteristics of the Oropharyngeal Cavity (Tongue, Palate and Laryngeal Entrance) in the Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra, Linnaeus, 1758)

Abumandour, M. M. A., El‐Bakary, N. E. R.
Anatomia, histologia, embryologia 2017 v.46 no.4 pp. 347-358
Fulica atra, birds, esophagus, larynx, palate, pharynx, scanning electron microscopy
The present study represents the first definitive anatomical description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the coot Fulica atra. For this purpose, the organs of six birds were prepared to examine grossly and by SEM and stereomicroscope. The oval lingual apex had multiple overlapping branched acicular processes on its anterior and lateral border. The lingual apex and body had multiple caudally directed filiform‐like papillae. By stereomicroscopy, the lingual root had a characteristic appearance and consisted of four parts. The openings of the anterior glands were present on the dorsal lingual surface of the body, while the projected papillae with wide openings of the posterior glands were present on the dorsal surface of lingual root. There was a row of caudally directed pharyngeal papillae at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound. Grossly, the pharyngeal papillae arrangement took a W‐shape, while by stereomicroscopy was observed to be heart shape. The palate was divided into two regions: a small rostral non‐papillary and a large caudal papillary region, but the rostral region was characterized by the presence of three longitudinal ridges. The papillary crest had two paramedian longitudinal papillary rows, which continued caudally until the beginning of the third median row. The freely distributed papillae took a caudolateral direction, while the papillae encircling the rostral part of choanal cleft took a caudomedial direction. There was a transverse papillary row between the two parts of choanal cleft. There was a transverse papillary row between the caudal border of the infundibular cleft and oesophagus.