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Effect of glyphosate acid on biochemical markers of periphyton exposed in outdoor mesocosms in the presence and absence of the mussel Limnoperna fortunei

Iummato, María Mercedes, Pizarro, Haydée, Cataldo, Daniel, Di Fiori, Eugenia, dos Santos Afonso, María, del Carmen Ríos de Molina, María, Juárez, Ángela Beatriz
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2017 v.36 no.7 pp. 1775-1784
Limnoperna fortunei, adverse effects, aquatic ecosystems, biomarkers, carotenes, catalase, chlorophyll, enzyme activity, glyphosate, lipid peroxidation, metabolism, mussels, oxidative stress, periphyton, superoxide dismutase, surface water
Glyphosate is currently the most widely used herbicide in agricultural production. It generally enters aquatic ecosystems through surface water runoff and aerial drift. We evaluated the effect of glyphosate acid on biochemical parameters of periphyton exposed to concentrations of 1, 3, and 6 mg/L in outdoor mesocosms in the presence and absence of the mussel Limnoperna fortunei. Periphyton ash‐free dry weight, chlorophyll a content, carotene/chlorophyll a ratio, lipid peroxidation levels, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined at days 0, 1, 7, 14, and 26 of the experimental period. Ash‐free dry weight was similar between control and glyphosate‐treated periphyton in the absence of L. fortunei. The latter had significantly lower carotene to chlorophyll a ratios and enzyme activities, and higher lipid peroxidation levels and chlorophyll a content than the former. These results show an adverse effect of glyphosate on the metabolism of periphyton community organisms, possibly inducing oxidative stress. On the contrary, no differences were observed in any of these variables between control and glyphosate‐treated periphyton in the presence of L. fortunei. Mussels probably attenuated the herbicide effects by contributing to glyphosate dissipation. The results also demonstrate that biochemical markers provide useful information that may warn of herbicide impact on periphyton communities. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1775–1784. © 2016 SETAC