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Oil, Fatty Acid, Flavonoid, and Resveratrol Content Variability and FAD2A Functional SNP Genotypes in the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Collection

Wang Ming Li, Chen Charles Y., Tonnis Brandon, Barkley Noelle A., Pinnow David L., Pittman Roy N., Davis Jerry, Holbrook C. Corley, Stalker H. Thomas, Pederson Gary A.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013 v.61 no.11 pp. 2875-2882
Arachis hypogaea, cultivars, fatty acid composition, fatty acids, gas chromatography, genes, genetic markers, genotype, genotyping, high performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, peanut oil, peanuts, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, quercetin, resveratrol, seed quality, seeds, single nucleotide polymorphism, United States
Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical composition within the mini-core was evaluated from freshly harvested seeds for two years. Oil, fatty acid composition, and flavonoid/resveratrol content were quantified by NMR, GC, and HPLC, respectively. Significant variability was detected in seed chemical composition among accessions and botanical varieties. Accessions were further genotyped with a functional SNP marker from the FAD2A gene using real-time PCR and classified into three genotypes with significantly different O/L ratios: wild type (G/G with a low O/L ratio <1.7), heterozygote (G/A with O/L ratio >1.4 but <1.7), and mutant (A/A with a high O/L ratio >1.7). The results from real-time PCR genotyping and GC fatty acid analysis were consistent. Accessions with high amounts of oil, quercetin, high seed weight, and O/L ratio were identified. The results from this study may be useful not only for peanut breeders, food processors, and product consumers to select suitable accessions or cultivars but also for curators to potentially expand the mini-core collection.