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Evaluation of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) protein sources as partial substitutes for fish meal in Litopenaeus vannamei grow‐out diets

Molina‐Poveda, César, Cárdenas, Ricardo, Jover, Miguel
Aquaculture research 2017 v.48 no.3 pp. 822-835
Amaranthus caudatus, Chenopodium quinoa, Litopenaeus vannamei, adverse effects, digestibility, feed conversion, fish meal, growth performance, protein sources, shrimp, specific growth rate
Two groups of isonitrogenous diets formulated by replacing 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% of fish meal protein by amaranth meal and quinoa meal were used to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Growth showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the group of shrimp fed with amaranth diets, with diet A15 showing the best specific growth rate (SGR = 2.81% day⁻¹), but after the control diet AQ0 (3.07% day⁻¹). Diet A15 had significantly (P < 0.05) the best digestibility of dry matter (79.7%) and protein (88.4%) without differences compared to control diet AQ0 (75.1% and 85.2%). Replacement with quinoa meal at any level tested did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the shrimp growth performance. Shrimp fed with quinoa diets showed better SGR (3.05% day⁻¹) than those shrimp fed with amaranth (2.56% day⁻¹). No differences in feed conversion ratio appeared in either of the protein sources, but quinoa diets presented a better average (3.13) than amaranth diets (4.01). The apparent digestibility of dry matter and protein for quinoa diets was similar for all diets, but they were statistically different (P < 0.05) from the control diet. We conclude that quinoa meal can replace fishmeal up to 45%, whereas it can be replaced with amaranth meal up to 15%, without adverse effects on growth and survival.