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Bactericidal mechanism of glutaraldehyde‐didecyldimethylammonium bromide as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli

Lin, W., Guan, X., Cao, J., Niu, B., Chen, Q.
Journal of applied microbiology 2017 v.122 no.3 pp. 676-685
DNA, DNA damage, Escherichia coli, H-transporting ATP synthase, anti-infective agents, antimicrobial properties, bromides, calcium, cell membranes, cell walls, cost effectiveness, disinfectants, enzyme activity, metal ions, new combination, potassium
AIMS: This study focuses on the bactericidal mechanism of the new combination of disinfectant glutaraldehyde‐didecyldimethylammonium bromide (GA‐DDAB) against Escherichia coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: Escherichia coli were exposed to GA‐DDAB, and assays for cell morphology, K⁺ and Ca²⁺ leakage, H⁺‐ATPase activity and DNA degradation were performed. GA‐DDAB damaged the cell wall and disrupted cell‐membrane integrity. Leakage of K⁺ and Ca²⁺ increased, resulting in significantly lower intracellular concentrations within 60 min of treatment. In addition, H⁺‐ATPase was inactivated and DNA was degraded. CONCLUSIONS: Leakage of intracellular components indicated that GA‐DDAB damaged the cell membrane of E. coli. This may have caused the observed disruption in equilibria of metal ions, inactivation of H⁺‐ATPase, and DNA damage. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Using a low concentration of GA and DDAB, a new combination disinfectant was developed. GA‐DDAB displayed higher antimicrobial activity than treatment with GA or DDAB alone. Therefore, GA‐DDAB may be a more cost‐effective and efficient antimicrobial agent than others in use today. Furthermore, this study provided a paradigm for developing high‐efficiency disinfectant to help address the growing problem of bacterial resistance.