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A retrospective evaluation of contrast‐induced kidney injury in dogs (2006–2012)

Goic, Joana B., Koenigshof, Amy M., McGuire, Lindsey D., Klinger, Anthony C., Beal, Matthew W.
Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care 2016 v.26 no.5 pp. 713-719
anesthesia, blood serum, creatinine, dogs, hospitals, intravenous injection, kidney diseases, kidneys, nephrotoxicity, patients, prospective studies, retrospective studies
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a population of dogs for evidence of contrast‐induced nephropathy (CIN). DESIGN: A retrospective case review between 2006 and 2012. SETTING: A university teaching hospital. ANIMALS: A total of 1,217 client‐owned dogs that were administered intravenous iodinated contrast agents were reviewed for evidence of CIN. Inclusion required a measured serum creatinine within 1 week prior as well as within 1 week following administration of contrast. Eighty‐six dogs with 92 contrast administrations qualified for inclusion. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: CIN was defined as an increase in >44.2 μmol/L (0.5 mg/dL) from baseline creatinine concentration within 1 week following administration of an intravenous iodinated contrast agent. A total of 7.6% of contrast administrations (7/92) fulfilled the definition of CIN. The creatinine postcontrast administration as well as the change in creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the CIN group than in the non‐CIN group (median postcreatinine 150 μmol/L [1.7 mg/dL] versus 70.7 μmol/L [0.8 mg/dL], median change in creatinine 53 μmol/L [0.6 mg/dL] versus 0 μmol/L). Patient signalment, initial creatinine, number of total contrast administrations, dose of contrast received, duration of anesthesia, IV fluid administration, administration of nephrotoxic agents, and use or vasopressor therapy were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal association between contrast administration and renal injury in these cases highlights the potential for CIN in dogs. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, a causal association between contrast administration and renal injury cannot be determined. A prospective study is needed to further evaluate CIN in dogs.