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In vitro Inhibition of Canine Complement‐Mediated Hemolysis

Hernandez, D.M., Goggs, R., Behling‐Kelly, E.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2018 v.32 no.1 pp. 142-146
complement, dogs, dose response, drugs, enzyme inhibitors, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, humans, people
BACKGROUND: Immune‐mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is the most common hematologic immune‐mediated disease in dogs. Complement fixation on erythrocytes causes hemolysis. Complement inhibition decreases hemolysis in people with the hemolytic disease and also may prove effective in treating IMHA in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the in vitro efficacy of 2 complement inhibitors used in humans against canine complement. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of the C3‐inhibitor compstatin and recombinant human C1‐esterase inhibitor (C1‐INH) was evaluated using an in vitro hemolytic assay and spectrophotometric measurement of released hemoglobin. Dose‐response curves for each inhibitor were generated. RESULTS: Compstatin decreased approximately 50% of canine complement‐mediated hemolysis in initial experiments. This inhibition largely was lost when a new lot of drug was purchased. C1‐INH showed a dose‐dependent inhibition. The highest concentration of C1‐INH tested (500 μg/mL) decreased >80% of canine complement‐mediated hemolysis, and the lowest concentration tested (31.25 μg/mL) decreased hemolysis >60%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Human C1‐INH is a robust inhibitor of canine complement‐mediated hemolysis, whereas compstatin was minimally and variably effective. Human C1‐INH may substantially decrease complement‐mediated hemolysis in dogs with IMHA and warrants further investigation.