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Anaerobic digestion of spent mushroom substrate under thermophilic conditions: performance and microbial community analysis

Xiao, Zheng, Lin, Manhong, Fan, Jinlin, Chen, Yixuan, Zhao, Chao, Liu, Bin
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2018 v.102 no.1 pp. 499-507
Crenarchaeota, Methanobacterium, Proteobacteria, anaerobic digestion, biogas, cellulose, crude fat, crude protein, genes, hemicellulose, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, lignocellulose, methane production, microbial communities, mushroom growing, mushrooms, population structure, ribosomal RNA, spent mushroom compost, sugars, volatile fatty acids, wastes
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is the residue of edible mushroom production occurring in huge amounts. The SMS residue can be digested for biogas production in the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. In the present study, performance of batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) of SMS was investigated as well as the interconnected microbial population structure changes. The analyzed batch TAD process lasted for 12 days with the cumulative methane yields of 177.69 mL/g volatile solid (VS). Hydrolytic activities of soluble sugar, crude protein, and crude fat in SMS were conducted mainly in the initial phase, accompanied by the excessive accumulation of volatile fatty acids and low methane yield. Biogas production increased dramatically from days 4 to 6. The degradation rates of cellulose and hemicellulose were 47.53 and 55.08%, respectively. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria (56.7%–62.8%) was the dominant phylum in different fermentative stages, which was highly specific compared with other anaerobic processes of lignocellulosic materials reported in the literature. Crenarchaeota was abundant in the archaea. The most dominant genera of archaea were retrieved as Methanothermobacter and Methanobacterium, but the latter decreased sharply with time. This study shows that TAD is a feasible method to handle the waste SMS.