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Amine-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a promising carrier for application in bio self-healing concrete

Seifan, Mostafa, Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza, Ghasemi, Younes, Samani, AliKhajeh, Berenjian, Aydin
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2018 v.102 no.1 pp. 175-184
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, bacteria, calcium carbonate, concrete, cracking, crystals, drying, ions, magnetism, mechanical properties, mixing, nanoparticles, nutrients, shrinkage, transmission electron microscopy, viability
Self-healing mechanisms are a promising solution to address the concrete cracking issue. Among the investigated self-healing strategies, the biotechnological approach is distinguished itself by inducing the most compatible material with concrete composition. In this method, the potent bacteria and nutrients are incorporated into the concrete matrix. Once cracking occurs, the bacteria will be activated, and the induced CaCO₃ crystals will seal the concrete cracks. However, the effectiveness of a bio self-healing concrete strictly depends on the viability of bacteria. Therefore, it is required to protect the bacteria from the resulted shear forces caused by mixing and drying shrinkage of concrete. Due to the positive effects on mechanical properties and the high compatibility of metallic nanoparticles with concrete composition, for the first time, we propose 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-coated IONs) as a biocompatible carrier for Bacillus species. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of APTES-coated IONs on the bacterial viability and CaCO₃ yield for future application in the concrete structures. The APTES-coated IONs were successfully synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the presence of 100 μg/mL APTES-coated IONs could increase the bacterial viability. It was also found that the CaCO₃-specific yield was significantly affected in the presence of APTES-coated IONs. The highest CaCO₃-specific yield was achieved when the cells were decorated with 50 μg/mL of APTES-coated IONs. This study provides new insights for the application of APTES-coated IONs in designing bio self-healing strategies.