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Development of a Novel Time-Temperature Integrator/Indicator (TTI) Based on the Maillard Reaction for Visual Thermal Monitoring of the Cooking Process

Lee, JungHyun, Harada, Rikako, Kawamura, Shuso, Koseki, Shigenobu
Food and bioprocess technology 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 185-193
Escherichia coli O157, Maillard reaction, color, cooking, heat treatment, lysine, meat products, microbiological quality, mixing, monitoring, plastics, potassium phosphates, temperature
There is a lack of easy-to-use hardware providing clear indications regarding both current temperature and temperature history during thermal processing. The objective of this study was to use the Maillard reaction to develop a novel time-temperature integrator/indicator (TTI) that would be able to perform these tasks during the cooking process. To this end, we comprehensively tested the Maillard reaction using various conditions to determine those under which the reaction illustrated obvious color change when temperature was held at 75 °C for 1 min, which is the recommendation of the Japanese government regarding safe meat product cooking. After adjusting various parameters related to the reaction, we managed to deduce a reaction system of D-ribose (7.0 mol/kg) and L-lysine (3.0 mol/kg) with dibasic potassium phosphate (0.5 mol/kg) satisfying the color-change criterion. The developed Maillard reaction-based TTI consisted of two transparent plastic poaches connected through a loose half-seal. Breaking the half-seal by pushing with fingers results in the mixing of the solutions and the initiation of the Maillard reaction. The TTI was tested in hamburger cooking and its color clearly changed from colorless to brown in hamburger during the 1-min hold at 75 °C, and also successfully eliminated viable 10⁶ CFU/g Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells. The developed TTI will enable to help ensure microbiological safety.