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Dietary l-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens
- Tan, Jianzhuang, Liu, Shasha, Guo, Yuming, Applegate, Todd J., Eicher, Susan D.
- The British journal of nutrition 2014 v.111 no.8 pp. 1394
- arginine, broiler chickens, cages, feed conversion, feed intake, feed supplements, heterophils, immunity, inflammation, interleukin-1, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, lipopolysaccharides, liveweight gain, lymphocytes, macrophages, phagocytosis, spleen, splenocytes, tonsils, transcription factor NF-kappa B
- In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary l-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1·05, 1·42 and 1·90 %) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0·99, 1·39, 1·76, 2·13 or 2·53 %) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14–21 d; P< 0·05). LPS injection suppressed (P< 0·05) the percentages of splenic CD11⁺ and B cells (percentages of splenic lymphocytes) and phagocytic activity of splenic heterophils and macrophages; Arg supplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11⁺, CD14⁺ and B cells in the spleen (P< 0·10). LPS injection increased (P< 0·05) the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in the spleen and caecal tonsils. Arginine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) the expression of IL-1β, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and PPAR-γ mRNA in the spleen and IL-1β, IL-10, TLR4 and NF-κB mRNA in the caecal tonsils. In Expt 2, increasing dietary Arg concentrations linearly and quadratically reduced the percentage of circulating B cells (P< 0·01). Collectively, Arg supplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14⁺ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1·76 %) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells.