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Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution and natural water samples using polyurethane foam/organobentonite/iron oxide nanocomposite adsorbent

Sayed, M., Burham, N.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.1 pp. 105-118
adsorbents, adsorption, aqueous solutions, cadmium, clay, foams, ions, iron oxides, liquids, models, pH, polymer nanocomposites, polymerization, polyols, polyurethanes, remediation, sorption isotherms, toluene, wastewater
A novel polyurethane foam/organobentonite/iron oxide nanocomposite adsorbent was successfully prepared via in situ polymerization of toluene diisocyanate and polyol in presence of 5 wt% organobentonite/iron oxide. The obtained nanocomposite was characterized in detail, and the results revealed that the clay layers are exfoliated and/or intercalated in the polymer matrix forming a nanocomposite structure. The application of the prepared nanocomposite for adsorption of cadmium ions from aqueous solution was tested as a function of various experimental parameters using batch procedures. Adsorptive removal of Cd(II) onto the nanocomposite attained maximum at adsorbent content 1.5 g/L, pH 6, and the equilibrium was established within 60 min. Kinetic studies showed that the experimental data fit very well to pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption process proceeds through three steps. It was found that external liquid film and intraparticle diffusion steps deeply affect the rate of Cd²⁺ ions adsorption onto the synthesized nanocomposite. Langmuir isotherm model fitted the adsorption data better than Freundlich with a maximum adsorption capacity (q ₘ) for Cd(II) equal to 78 mg/g under the specified experimental conditions. The synthesized nanocomposite afforded effective extraction for Cd²⁺ ions from natural water samples and excellent reusability feature. This study declares the potential efficiency of a new clay/polymer nanocomposite as alternative for wastewater remediation.