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Evaluation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content in non-alcoholic drinks

Czerwonka, Małgorzata, Opiłka, Justyna, Tokarz, Andrzej
European food research & technology 2018 v.244 no.1 pp. 11-18
Maillard reaction, ammonia, diet, food coloring, food contamination, food research, fruit juices, fruits, hydroxymethylfurfural, instant coffee, mutagens, nectar, soft drinks, sucrose, sulfites, sweeteners, syrups
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a cyclic aldehyde, commonly occurring in food, formed in the process of non-enzymatic browning. On the one hand, this compound is widely used as a quality indicator of the intensity of thermal changes in products; on the other, it is a food contaminant with potential carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the content of 5-HMF in popular non-alcoholic drinks, which can be a very important source of this compound in the diet. 5-HMF levels in tested products varied widely. The greatest amount of 5-HMF was determined in the instant coffees; the average content exceeded 3000 mg kg⁻¹. Roasted coffee was characterized by about ten times lower levels of this compound. 5-HMF content in fruit juices and nectars depend on the fruits produced, though most products did not exceed 10 mg L⁻¹. In carbonated soft drinks, the sources of 5-HMF are both sweeteners and sulphite ammonia caramel, added as a food coloring. The levels of this compound depend on the type of drink and sweetener: sucrose or glucose–fructose syrup.