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Evaluation of physical, sensorial, and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with Moringa Oleifera leaf powder
- Bourekoua, Hayat, Różyło, Renata, Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula, Benatallah, Leila, Zidoune, MohammedNasreddine, Dziki, Dariusz
- European food research & technology 2018 v.244 no.2 pp. 189-195
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Moringa oleifera, antioxidant activity, chewiness, food research, gluten-free bread, hardness, leaves, median effective concentration, sensory evaluation
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder addition on physical, sensorial, and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread. Moringa leaf powder (MLP) was incorporated at different levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% in basic replacement) in gluten-free bread. The results revealed that addition more than 2.5% decreased the specific volume of bread. The hardness and chewiness of bread slightly decreased with 2.5 and 10% MLP addition, whereas springiness was not affected by MLP. For sensory evaluation, the most acceptable gluten-free bread was obtained for control bread and bread with 2.5% MLP. The lightness of crumb and crust decreased with increasing of MLP from 63.37 to 27.59 and from 52.40 to 33.49, respectively. The total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of extracts increased with the addition of MLP. The addition of MLP already for 2.5% resulted in large increase in the content of TPC (from 0.88 to 2.12 GAE/g dw). The high activity for DPPH scavenging was found for 7.5% and for 10% of MLP addition. For ABTS scavenging capacity, the high activity was for 5.0, 7.5, and 10%. Regarding RED and OH scavenging capacity, gluten-free breads with MLP from 2.5 to 10% presented significantly higher activity (RED from 32.92 to 21.56 and OH scavenging from 54.38 to 47.31 EC₅₀ mg dw comparing to control bread (40.02; 90.81 EC₅₀ mg dw/ml, respectively). Taking into account both the sensory evaluation and antioxidant activity, the addition of MFP should not exceed 5%.