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A systematic review of leptospirosis on wild animals in Latin America

Vieira, AnahiS., Pinto, PriscilaS., Lilenbaum, Walter
Tropical animal health and production 2018 v.50 no.2 pp. 229-238
Aves, Leptospiraceae, agglutination tests, amphibians, antigens, ecosystems, epidemiology, humans, leptospirosis, livestock, public health, reptiles, serotypes, systematic review, wild animals, wildlife, Latin America
Leptospirosis is a bacterial systemic infection which affects domestic animals and wildlife, as well as humans. Many wild animals act as reservoirs of leptospires. Nevertheless, the real role of wildlife animals as source of infection to livestock and humans, as well as the most important reservoirs and leptospiral strains remains unclear. This systematic review assesses the available data about wildlife and their biomes in Latin America, concerning to leptospiral infection. In addition, we discuss the development of the research on leptospirosis in wildlife in this region. After the application of exclusion criteria, 79 papers were analyzed, comprising 186 species, 122 genus, 53 families, and 19 orders from four classes. Mammals were the most studied class, followed by Amphibian, Reptile, and Aves. The Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup was predominant in most biomes and many orders. A small number of antigens detected the majority of seroreactive animals of each class, and a smaller panel may be used at microscopic agglutination test. Further studies must always consider edaphoclimatic conditions besides only host class or species, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the wild epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis in the region. In conclusion, direct and indirect evidences demonstrate that leptospirosis is largely widespread among wildlife in all biomes of Latin America. Moreover, more research on the role of wildlife on the epidemiology of leptospirosis and its impact on livestock and public health are required, particularly focusing on direct detection of the agent.