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Chemical elements as fingerprints of geographical origin in cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. raised on the same SO4 rootstock

Pepi, Salvatore, Grisenti, Pietro, Sansone, Luigi, Chicca, Milvia, Vaccaro, Carmela
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.1 pp. 490-506
Vitis vinifera, X-radiation, atomic absorption spectrometry, bioaccumulation, climate, cultivars, leaves, magnesium, provenance, rare earth elements, rootstocks, soil, soil-plant interactions, trace elements, wines, zirconium, Italy
The uptake of major and trace elements in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) can be influenced by soil, climate, geographic origin, and rootstock type. Rootstocks were mainly selected to resist phylloxera and for specific tolerance to lime, mineral uptake, drought, and salinity. The relationship among concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth elements was studied in soil and leaves from two Italian grapevine cultivars, “Cabernet Sauvignon” and “Corvina,” employed to produce renowned controlled designation of origin (DOC) wines. The cultivars were raised on the same rootstock SO4 in two different areas of the Veneto Region (Northern Italy). The elements were studied by X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and data were elaborated by non-parametric tests and multivariate linear discrimination analysis. The related index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of the elements from soil to leaves. A statistically significant correspondence between soil and leaf samples was observed for Mg, Sm, V, and Zr. The results allowed to discriminate soil and leaf samples of the two cultivars according to geographical provenance, possibly providing geochemical markers (fingerprints) useful against fraudulent use of DOC wine labels.