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First determination of fullerenes in the Austrian market and environment: quantitative analysis and assessment
- Zakaria, Susanna, Fröhlich, Eleonore, Fauler, Günter, Gries, Anna, Weiß, Stefan, Scharf, Sigrid
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.1 pp. 562-571
- animals, cosmetics, fullerene, liquid chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, markets, mass spectrometry, quantitative analysis, sewage sludge, surface water, tap water, toxicity, wastewater
- This study forms the first report on analyzing fullerenes in the Austrian environment and cosmetic products available on the Austrian market. We developed, optimized, and validated a novel method for the analysis of C₆₀ and C₇₀ fullerenes and N-methylfulleropyrrolidine C₆₀ (NMFP) for measuring sensitivities in the low nanograms per liter range in order to prove their presence in the environment (12 wastewater- and 12 sewage sludge samples) and in 11 selected fullerene-containing cosmetic products from three different brands. The optimized method relies on a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and, for the first time, introduced the Carrez-clarification, followed by liquid chromatography (LC) and coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) quantification. The total variability of the new established LC-MS/MS method based on all the tested matrices was below 10%. We found recoveries generally higher than 70% for both tap water and surface water. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the wastewater samples were measured to be from 0.8 to 1.6 ng/L, for the sewage sludge samples, from 1.4 to 2.6 ng/g DM (drymass), and for the cosmetic samples from 0.2 to 0.4 ng/g. None of the analyzed samples of wastewater or sewage sludge samples contained fullerenes. But in 70% of the tested cosmetics, fullerene concentrations between 10 and 340 ng/g were detected. These values were much lower than concentrations causing toxicity in water animals.