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Piperine-like alkamides from Piper nigrum induce BDNF promoter and promote neurite outgrowth in Neuro-2a cells

Yun, Young Sook, Noda, Sachie, Takahashi, Shigeru, Takahashi, Yuji, Inoue, Hideshi
Natural medicines 2018 v.72 no.1 pp. 238-245
Piper nigrum, amides, bioactive properties, black pepper, cyclic AMP, genes, methanol, mice, moieties, neurites, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) contains a variety of alkamides. Among them, piperine has been reported to have antidepressant-like effects in chronically stressed mice, but little is known about the biological activity of other alkamides. In this study, we investigated the effects of alkamides from white pepper (P. nigrum) on neuronal cells. Twelve alkamides were isolated from white pepper MeOH extracts, and their chemical structures were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The compounds were subjected to assays using the luciferase-reporter gene under the control of the BDNF promoter or cAMP response element in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells. In both assays, marked reporter-inducing activity was observed for piperine (1), piperettine (2) and piperylin (7), all of which have in common an (E)-5-(buta-1,3-dien-1-yl)benzo[d] [1, 3] dioxole moiety. Piperettine (2) and piperylin (7) tended to increase endogenous BDNF protein levels. Furthermore, piperylin (7) promoted retinoic acid-induced neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that piperylin (7), or analogues thereof, may have a beneficial effect on disorders associated with dysregulation of BDNF expression, such as depression.