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Pollution characteristics of particulate matters emitted from outdoor barbecue cooking in urban Jinan in eastern China
- Song, Yifei, Sun, Lei, Wang, Xinfeng, Zhang, Yating, Wang, Hui, Li, Rui, Xue, Likun, Chen, Jianmin, Wang, Wenxing
- Frontiers of environmental science & engineering 2018 v.12 no.2 pp. 14
- air, cleaning, cooking, particle size distribution, particulates, pollution, restaurants, smoke, urban areas, China
- To understand the pollution characteristics of particulate matter emitted from outdoor barbecue cooking in eastern China, measurements of the PM₂.₅ mass concentration, the number concentration of particles with a diameter of 0.01 to 1.0 μm, and the particle size distribution from 0.3 to 25 μm were carried out at seven barbecue restaurants in urban Jinan. The average PM₂.₅ mass concentration and sub-micron particle number concentrations at a distance of 1 m from the grills were 250 to 1083 μg/m³ and 0.90 × 10⁵ to 2.23 × 10⁵ cm–³, respectively, which were much higher than those in the ambient air of the urban area. Compared to the ambient atmosphere, barbecue cooking emitted very high levels of particles with a larger increase in the concentrations of super-micron particles than that of sub-micron particles. The super-micron particle number concentrations at the barbecue restaurants were 10 to 100 times higher than those observed in the ambient urban atmosphere. The barbecue smoke had a significant effect on the particle concentrations in the surrounding region. Both mass and number concentrations of particles exhibited maximum values immediately near the barbecue grills and often reached a peak at a distance of 10 to 15 m. The removal efficiency of a range hood for the cooking particles was tested in an indoor kitchen. The range hood effectively cleaned the particulate matter pollution caused by cooking with a removal efficiency larger than 80%. Therefore, the use of a range hood is recommended for outdoor barbecue restaurants coupled with a smoke purifier to clean the emitted high concentrations of particles.