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Quantitative method for analysis of six anticoagulant rodenticides in faeces, applied in a case with repeated samples from a dog

Seljetun, Kristin Opdal, Eliassen, Elin, Karinen, Ritva, Moe, Lars, Vindenes, Vigdis
Acta veterinaria scandinavica 2018 v.60 no.1 pp. 3
anticoagulants, blood, brodifacoum, buffers, dogs, feces, formates, half life, ionization, liquid chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction, methanol, monitoring, pH, pharmacokinetics, poisoning, quantitative analysis, tandem mass spectrometry
BACKGROUND: Accidental poisoning with anticoagulant rodenticides is not uncommon in dogs, but few reports of the elimination kinetics and half-lives in this species have been published. Our objectives were to develop and validate a new method for the quantification of anticoagulant rodenticides in canine blood and faeces using reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) and apply the method on a case of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. RESULTS: Sample preparation was liquid–liquid extraction. Six anticoagulant rodenticides were separated using a UPLC® BEH C₁₈-column with a mobile phase consisting of 5 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 10.2 and methanol. MS/MS detection was performed with positive electrospray ionization and two multiple reaction monitoring transitions. The limits of quantification were set at the levels of the lowest calibrator (1.5–2.7 ng/mL or ng/g). The method was successfully applied to a case from a dog accidentally poisoned with anticoagulant rodenticide. Coumatetralyl and brodifacoum concentrations were determined from serial blood and faecal samples. A terminal half-life of at least 81 days for coumatetralyl in blood was estimated, which is longer than previous reported in other species. A slow elimination of brodifacoum from the faeces was found, with traces still detectable in the faeces at day 513. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a new method of detection and quantification of six frequently used anticoagulant rodenticides in canine faeces. Such drugs might cause serious health effects and it is important to be able to detect these drugs, to initiate proper treatment. The very long elimination half-lives detected in our study is important to be aware of in assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide burden to the environment.