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In vivo testing of novel vaccine prototypes against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
- Antenucci, Fabio, Fougeroux, Cyrielle, Deeney, Alannah, Ørskov, Cathrine, Rycroft, Andrew, Holst, Peter Johannes, Bojesen, Anders Miki
- Veterinary research 2018 v.49 no.1 pp. 4
- Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Gram-negative bacteria, adjuvants, antibodies, cytotoxicity, financial economics, immune response, immunoglobulin G, in vivo studies, livestock and meat industry, lungs, pathogenicity, pleuropneumonia, prototypes, recombinant proteins, serotypes, swine, vaccination, vaccine development, vaccines, veterinary medicine
- Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents the main cause of porcine pleuropneumonia in pigs, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. A. pleuropneumoniae, as the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, excrete vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection by all known A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. Previously identified vaccine candidates, the recombinant proteins ApfA and VacJ, administered individually or in various combinations with the OMVs, were employed as vaccination strategies. Our data show that the addition of the OMVs in the vaccine formulations significantly increased the specific IgG titer against both ApfA and VacJ in the immunized animals, confirming the previously postulated potential of the OMVs as adjuvant. Unfortunately, the antibody response raised did not translate into an effective protection against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, as none of the immunized groups following challenge showed a significantly lower degree of lesions than the controls. Interestingly, quite the opposite was true, as the animals with the highest IgG titers were also the ones bearing the most extensive lesions in their lungs. These results shed new light on A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity, suggesting that antibody-mediated cytotoxicity from the host immune response may play a central role in the development of the lesions typically associated with A. pleuropneumoniae infections.