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Respiratory response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus to dissolved oxygen changes at three acclimation temperatures

Zhao, Zhigang, Dong, Shuanglin, Xu, Qiyou
Fish physiology and biochemistry 2018 v.44 no.1 pp. 63-71
Ctenopharyngodon idella, acclimation, dissolved oxygen, fish, hypoxia, normoxia, oxygen, oxygen consumption, respiratory rate, temperature
Respiratory parameters of grass carp were studied during dissolved oxygen (DO) changes from normal DO to hypoxia, then return to normal DO at 15, 25, and 30 °C acclimation, respectively. The results showed that with increases of acclimation temperature at normoxia the respiratory frequency (fR), oxygen consumption rate (VO₂), respiratory stroke volume (VS.R), gill ventilation (VG), and VG/VO₂ of grass carp increased significantly, but the oxygen extraction efficiency (EO₂) of fish decreased significantly (P < 0.05). With declines of DO levels, the fR, VS.R, VG, and VG/VO₂ of fish increased significantly at different acclimation temperatures (P < 0.05). A slight increase was found in VO₂, and the EO₂ of fish remained almost constant above DO levels of 3.09, 2.91, and 2.54 mg l⁻¹ at 15, 25, and 30 °C, while the VO₂ and EO₂ began to decrease significantly with further reductions in DO levels (P < 0.05). After 0.5 h of recovery to normoxia from hypoxia at three acclimation, the fR, VS.R, VG, and VG/VO₂ of the fish decreased sharply; meanwhile, the VO₂ and EO₂ increased sharply (P < 0.05). The respiratory parameters of fish gradually approached initial values with prolonged recovery time to normoxia, and reached their initial values in 2.5 h at 25 and 30 °C acclimation. The critical oxygen concentrations (Cc) of fish for VO₂ were 2.42 mg l⁻¹ at 15 °C, 2.02 mg l⁻¹ at 25 °C, and 1.84 mg l⁻¹ at 30 °C, respectively. The results suggest that grass carp are highly adapted to varied DO and short-term hypoxia environments.