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Core–shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography
- Ahmed, Adham, Skinley, Kevin, Herodotou, Stephanie, Zhang, Haifei
- Journal of separation science 2018 v.41 no.1 pp. 99-124
- high performance liquid chromatography, metabolites, microparticles, silica
- The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high‐performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core–shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core–shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core–shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non‐porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core–shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core–shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres‐on‐sphere particles and core–shell particles with a non‐silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high‐performance liquid chromatography applications.