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Efficient methods for isolating five phytochemicals from Gentiana macrophylla using high‐performance countercurrent chromatography

Rho, Taewoong, Jung, Mila, Lee, Min Won, Chin, Young‐Won, Yoon, Kee Dong
Journal of separation science 2016 v.39 no.24 pp. 4723-4731
Gentiana macrophylla, acetates, countercurrent chromatography, hydrophilicity, iridoids, methanol, methylene chloride, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, phytopharmaceuticals, spectral analysis
Efficient high‐performance countercurrent chromatography methods were developed to isolate five typical compounds from the extracts of Gentiana macrophylla. n‐Butanol‐soluble extract of G. macrophylla contained three hydrophilic iridoids, loganic acid (1), swertiamarin (2) and gentiopicroside (3), and a chromene derivative, macrophylloside D (4) which were successfully isolated by flow rate gradient (1.5 mL/min in 0–60 min, 5.0 mL/min in 60–120 min), and consecutive flow rate gradient HPCCC using n‐butanol/0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (1:1, v/v, normal phase mode) system. The yields of 1–4 were 22, 16, 122, and 6 mg, respectively, with purities over 97% in a flow rate gradient high‐performance countercurrent chromatography, and consecutive flow rate gradient high‐performance countercurrent chromatography gave 1, 2, 3 (54, 41, 348 mg, respectively, purities over 97%) and 4 (13 mg, purity at 95%) from 750 mg of sample. The main compound in methylene chloride soluble extract, 2‐methoxyanofinic acid, was successfully separated by n‐hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (4:6:4:6, v/v/v/v, flow‐rate: 4 mL/min, reversed phase mode) condition. The structures of five isolates were elucidated by ¹H, ¹³C NMR and ESI‐Q‐TOF‐MS spectroscopic data which were compared with previously reported values.