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Correlations among Resistances to Different Antimicrobial Compounds in Salmonella Strains from Hen Eggshells

Fernandez Marquez, Maria Luisa, Grande Burgos, Maria Jose, Perez Pulido, Ruben, Lucas Lopez, Rosario, Galvez, Antonio
Journal of food protection 2018 v.81 no.2 pp. 178-185
Salmonella, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides, benzalkonium chloride, biocides, biofilm, carvacrol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, chlorides, ciprofloxacin, egg shell, food chain, hens, lactic acid, netilmicin, phenotype, plankton, polymyxin B, poultry industry, preservatives, sodium, sodium phosphate, thymol
Persistence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in the food chain may depend on strain tolerance to other antimicrobials and also on biofilm formation capacity. Yet, there is limited information on sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella to other antimicrobials, such as phenolic compounds, chemical preservatives, or antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed at correlating antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation capacity in antibiotic-resistant, biocide-tolerant Salmonella strains from hen eggshells. A collection of 21 strains previously selected according to their antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance phenotypes were used for the present study. Strains were inspected for their biofilm formation capacity and for their sensitivity to (i) phenolic compounds (carvacrol, thymol), (ii) chemical preservatives (sodium lactate, trisodium phosphate), and (iii) cationic antimicrobials (polymyxin B, lysozyme-EDTA). Biofilm formation capacity was not correlated with antimicrobial resistances of the planktonic Salmonella. Polymyxin B and the lysozyme-EDTA combinations showed significant (P < 0.05) positive correlations to each other and to sodium lactate. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlations were also observed for benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide with carvacrol, thymol, and trisodium phosphate, or between hexadecylpyridinium chloride and carvacrol. Antibiotic resistance also correlated positively with a higher tolerance to other antimicrobials (cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin with carvacrol, thymol, and trisodium phosphate; netilmicin with thymol and trisodium phosphate; tetracycline with carvacrol and thymol). These results must be taken into consideration to ensure a proper use of antimicrobials in the poultry industry, at concentrations that do not allow coselection of biocide-tolerant, antibiotic-resistant Salmonella.