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Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Milk and Raw Milk Cheese in Egypt
- Ombarak, Rabee A., Hinenoya, Atsushi, Elbagory, Abel-Rahman M., Yamasaki, Shinji
- Journal of food protection 2018 v.81 no.2 pp. 226-232
- Escherichia coli, ampicillin, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, beta-lactamase, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cheeses, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, disk diffusion antimicrobial test, drugs, fosfomycin, imipenem, kanamycin, milk production, multiple drug resistance, nalidixic acid, phenotype, raw milk, resistance genes, sequence analysis, streptomycin, Egypt
- The goal of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance and characterize the implicated genes in 222 isolates of Escherichia coli from 187 samples of raw milk and the two most popular cheeses in Egypt. E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Among the 222 E. coli isolates, 66 (29.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and half of these resistant isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype (resistance to at least three different drug classes). The resistance traits were observed to tetracycline (27.5%), ampicillin (18.9%), streptomycin (18.5%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (11.3%), cefotaxime (4.5%), kanamycin (4.1%), ceftazidime (3.6%), chloramphenicol (2.3%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), and ciprofloxacin (1.4%). No resistance to fosfomycin and imipenem was observed. Tetracycline resistance genes tetA, tetB, and tetD were detected in 53 isolates, 9 isolates, and 1 isolate, respectively, but tetC was not detected. Aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, aadA, and aphA1 were detected in 41, 41, 11, and 9 isolates, respectively. Sulfonamide resistance genes sul1, sul2, and sul3 were detected in 7, 25, and 3 isolates, respectively. Of 42 ampicillin-resistant isolates, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were detected in 40, 9, and 3 isolates, respectively, and 10 (23.8%) ampicillin-resistant isolates were found to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Each bla gene of extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli was further subtyped to be blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-104, blaTEM-1, and blaSHV-12. The class 1 integron was also detected in 28 resistant isolates, and three different patterns were obtained by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sequencing analysis of the variable region revealed that four isolates had dfrA12/orfF/aadA2, two had aadA22, and one had dfrA1/aadA1. These data suggest that antimicrobial-resistant E. coli are widely distributed in the milk production and processing environment in Egypt and may play a role in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance to other pathogenic and commensal bacteria.