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Effect of High Pressures in Combination with Temperature on the Inactivation of Spores of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Types B and F
- Skinner, Guy E., Morrissey, Travis R., Patazca, Eduardo, Loeza, Viviana, Halik Lindsay A., Schill, Kristin M., Reddy, Rukma
- Journal of food protection 2018 v.81 no.2 pp. 261-271
- Clostridium botulinum, crops, flukes, heat tolerance, heat transfer, heat treatment, high pressure treatment, low acid foods, most probable number technique, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oils, pH, protective effect, screening, shelf life, spores, temperature
- The impact of high pressure processing on the inactivation of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum is important in extended shelf life chilled low-acid foods. The three most resistant C. botulinum strains (Ham-B, Kap 9-B, and 610-F) were selected for comparison of their thermal and pressure-assisted thermal resistance after screening 17 nonproteolytic C. botulinum strains (8 type B, 7 type E, and 2 type F). Spores of strains Ham-B, Kap 9-B, and 610-F were prepared using a biphasic media method, diluted in N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.00) to 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/mL, placed into a modified sterile transfer pipette, heat sealed, and subjected to a combination of high pressures (600 to 750 MPa) and high temperatures (80 to 91°C) using laboratory and pilot-scale pressure test systems. Diluted spores from the same crops were placed in nuclear magnetic resonance tubes, which were heat sealed, and subjected to 80 to 91°C in a Fluke 7321 high precision bath with Duratheram S oil as the heat transfer fluid. After incubation for 3 months, survivors in both studies were determined by the five-tube most-probable-number method using Trypticase–peptone–glucose–yeast extract broth. The highest (>5.0) log reductions in spore counts for Ham-B, Kap 9-B, and 610-F occurred at the highest temperature and pressure combination tested (91°C and 750 MPa). Thermal D-values of Ham-B, Kap 9-B, and 610-F decreased as the process temperature increased from 80 to 87°C, decreasing to <1.0 min at 87°C for these strains. Pressure-assisted thermal D-values of Ham-B, Kap 9-B, and 610-F decreased as the process temperature increased from 80 to 91°C with any pressure combination and decreased to <1.0 min as the pressure increased from 600 to 750 MPa at 91°C. Based on the pressure-assisted thermal D-values, pressure exerted a more protective effect on spores of Ham-B, Kap 9-B, and 610-F when processed at 83 to 91°C combined with pressures of 600 to 700 MPa when compared with thermal treatment only. No protective effect was observed when the spores of Ham-B, Kap9-B, and 610-F were treated at lower temperatures (80 to 83°C) in combination with 750 MPa. However, at higher temperatures (87 to 91°C) in combination with 750 MPa, a protective effect was seen for Ham-B, Kap9-B, and 610-F spores based on the calculated pressure-assisted thermal D-values.