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Pattern recognition receptors and signaling in plant–microbe interactions

Saijo, Yusuke, Loo, Eliza Po‐iian, Yasuda, Shigetaka
The plant journal 2018 v.93 no.4 pp. 592-613
convergent evolution, disease resistance, innate immunity, inventories, microorganisms, pathogens, phosphotransferases (kinases), plasticity, receptors
Plants solely rely on innate immunity of each individual cell to deal with a diversity of microbes in the environment. Extracellular recognition of microbe‐ and host damage‐associated molecular patterns leads to the first layer of inducible defenses, termed pattern‐triggered immunity (PTI). In plants, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) described to date are all membrane‐associated receptor‐like kinases or receptor‐like proteins, reflecting the prevalence of apoplastic colonization of plant‐infecting microbes. An increasing inventory of elicitor‐active patterns and PRRs indicates that a large number of them are limited to a certain range of plant groups/species, pointing to dynamic and convergent evolution of pattern recognition specificities. In addition to common molecular principles of PRR signaling, recent studies have revealed substantial diversification between PRRs in their functions and regulatory mechanisms. This serves to confer robustness and plasticity to the whole PTI system in natural infections, wherein different PRRs are simultaneously engaged and faced with microbial assaults. We review the functional significance and molecular basis of PRR‐mediated pathogen recognition and disease resistance, and also an emerging role for PRRs in homeostatic association with beneficial or commensal microbes.