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Generic names in the Orbiliaceae (Orbiliomycetes) and recommendations on which names should be protected or suppressed

Baral, Hans-Otto, Weber, Evi, Gams, Walter, Hagedorn, Gregor, Liu, Bin, Liu, Xingzhong, Marson, Guy, Marvanová, Ludmila, Stadler, Marc, Weiß, Michael
Mycological progress 2018 v.17 no.1-2 pp. 5-31
Arthrobotrys, Orbilia, Rotifera, anamorphs, invertebrates, nematophagous fungi, new combination, phylogeny
A list of all generic names that have been connected with the Orbiliomycetes is provided. Recommendations are made as to which names should be used in accordance with the rules and the different generic concepts. There is a mismatch in the current generic concepts within Orbiliomycetes regarding the two morphs: a narrow concept is used for the asexual morphs, but a broad concept relies on the sexual morphs. As a consequence, many more generic names have been established for the asexual morphs. A number of previous generic concepts are artificial, since they were based on single characters without molecular support. In order to provide solutions for this mismatch, we present three different generic concepts within the Orbiliomycetes. A broad concept recognizes a large genus Orbilia, with which most of the listed names fall into synonymy, but could be maintained as infrageneric names. Due to the lack of data proving phylogenetic relationships, this broad concept, at present, is the most practicable and recommended one. A moderate concept subdivides Orbilia into several genera, with all nematode-trapping fungi merged in Arthrobotrys. A narrow generic concept accepts genera based on differences in trapping organs, but also subdivides the remaining groups of Orbilia into additional genera. Trapping of invertebrates (zoophagy) is not restricted to Arthrobotrys in a broad sense, but occurs also in the more distant basal genera Hyalorbilia and Lecophagus, which mainly prey on rhizopods and rotifers. Whether these predatory capabilities trace back to a common ancestor is not clear. The following new combinations are proposed: Hyalorbilia oviparasitica, Hyalorbilia quadridens, Hyalorbilia tenuifusaria, and Orbilia fissilis.