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Electrochemical removal of nitrate in industrial wastewater

Xu, Dong, Li, Yang, Yin, Lifeng, Ji, Yangyuan, Niu, Junfeng, Yu, Yanxin
Frontiers of environmental science & engineering 2018 v.12 no.1 pp. 9
denitrification, electrochemistry, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, electrolytes, electron transfer, hydrogenation, nitrates, nitrogen, pH, researchers, sludge, wastewater
A number of recent studies have demonstrated that electrochemical technologies, including electroreduction (ER), electrocoagulation (EC), and electrodialysis (ED), are effective in nitrate elimination in wastewater due to their high reactivity. To obtain the maximal elimination efficiency and current efficiency, many researchers have conducted experiments to investigate the optimal conditions (i.e., potential, current density, pH value, plate distance, initial nitrate concentration, electrolyte, and other factors) for nitrate elimination. The mechanism of ER, EC and ED for nitrate removal has been fully elucidated. The ER mechanism of nitrate undergoes electron transfer and hydrogenation reduction. The EC pathways of nitrate removal include reduction, coagulation and flotation. The ED pathways of nitrate include redox reaction and dialysis. Although the electrochemical technology can remove nitrate from wastewater efficiently, many problems (such as relatively low selectivity toward nitrogen, sludge production and brine generation) still hinder electrochemical treatment implementation. This paper critically presents an overview of the current state-of-the-art of electrochemical denitrification to enhance the removal efficiency and overcome the shortages, and will significantly improve the understanding of the detailed processes and mechanisms of nitrate removal by electrochemical treatment and provide useful information to scientific research and actual practice.